But the leader of the new state was the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who implemented a political system based on Islamic beliefs and appointed the heads of the judiciary, military and media.
He was succeeded in by Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. There is an elected president, currently Hassan Rouhani , who is considered a moderate, reformist figure. Iran is one of only two countries in the world that reserves seats in its legislature for religious clerics the other is the UK. Twenty-seven countries enshrine Islam as their state religion. The only Christian theocracy is Vatican City, the tiny but powerful centre of Roman Catholicism , where the Pope is the supreme power and heads the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the Vatican government.
Thirteen countries including nine in Europe designate Christianity or a particular Christian denomination as their state religion. Twenty-one bishops sit in the House of Lords by right. However the government is secular. In , more than countries and territories have no official or preferred religion. The oldest religion in the world is considered to be Hinduism, which dates back to about 7, BCE.
Then along came Christianity, followed about years later by Islam. Some might argue that the newest religion is no religion , although non-believers have been around as long as humans. But periodically new religious movements spring up, such as Kopimism , an internet religion, the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster or Pastafarianism officially recognised by the New Zealand government but not the Dutch , and Terasem, a transreligion that believes death is optional and God is technological.
In , the Temple of the Jedi Order, members of which follow the tenets of the faith central to the Star Wars films, failed in its effort to be recognised as a religious organisation under UK charity law. In the last two censuses, Jedi has been the most popular alternative religion with more than , people 0. By , numbers had dropped sharply, but there were still , people who told the government they were Jedi Knights.
Of course — there are huge consequences to religious belief and practice. Firstly, countless wars and conflicts have had an overt or covert religious dimension throughout history right up to the present day. Donald Trump won the presidential election with the overwhelming support of white evangelical Christians. Legislators in Argentina recently voted against legalising abortion under pressure from Catholic bishops and the pope.
There are millions of people of faith across the world engaging in social action projects to help the poor and marginalised. More prejudice and persecution. Followers of most major religions report increasing hostility and, in many cases, violence. The infighting and power struggles between Muhammad's family members, closest companions and their children only intensified with time.
Within 50 short years of Muhammad's death, even the Kaaba, which had stood for centuries under pagan religion, lay in ruins from internal Muslim war Within the first few decades following his death, his Arabian companions invaded and conquered Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist and Zoroastrian lands. A mere 25 years after Muhammad's death, Muslim armies had captured land and people within the modern borders of over 28 countries outside of Saudi Arabia.
To this day, not a week goes by that Islamic fundamentalists do not attempt to kill Christians, Jews, Hindus and Buddhists explicitly in the name of Allah. This is according to the example set by Muhammad. Muhammad said that Muslims can be put to death for murder, but that a Muslim could never be put to death for killing a non-Muslim. Allahu Akbar!
I must appreciate your effort to have searched a little bit about Islam. I Should say that who should you be asking about Islam? Either those who are practicing it or the ones who are inherently born to oppose and hate it. You will never get this point, or any point in life, if you don't have a neutral perspective about such controversies.
The evolution of religious belief.
I assert that your source of Knowledge is biased and false. Most of the points you have mentioned above are totally wrong and opposite of the truth. I'm not here to prove anything to anyone and I can't do so unless the other person comes with a unbiased and disinterested mentality. I wish you ask the right person about islam. Well Kashif, I don't rule out the possibility there are Muslims who have little understanding of the Quran, simply claim to be Muslim and try to live by the Golden Rule.
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Unfortunately, the Quran offers only 3 options for dealing with infidels non-muslims : kill them, convert them or make them pay a tax jizya. Some are quite graphic, with commands to chop off heads and fingers and kill infidels wherever they may be hiding. Muslims who do not join the fight are called 'hypocrites' and warned that Allah will send them to Hell if they do not join the slaughter.
The psychology behind religious belief
I also question why Muslim lands don't accept Muslim refugees but instead the stupid West takes them in. Every Ayah of Quran has a background and a specific context which the reader must be aware of in order to understand the true concept.
Plus, each English translation or any other translation of Quran is subject to too many errors that's why the reader easily gets confused. I have read Quran with both English and native langage. And I can understand why people easily get confused about it. No one is to blame for this. It is just that Arabic Language is so different and unique that it can not be translated perfectly. Additionally, talking about specific context, if you miss the context and take few verses using them as per your desire, then this happens. Just for example you've mentioned about the Islam commanding killing non muslims.
This is true, it is mentioned more than once.
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But you clearly miss the background context which is actually killing of those non muslims that used to spread chaos and ruthlessly fought muslims and other non muslim tribes. Islam doesn't allow anyone to spread disruption on land and doesn't allow chaos either it be against muslims or non muslims. And FYI you might've never head of those ayah which order muslims to be in peace with those and not fight those who don't spread such chaos.
True Islam, not the one you know, doesn't even allow cutting down tress and smashing herbs on the way to battlefield let alone innocent humans. And killing of women, children and elderly people during war is strongly condemnable and prohibited in islam. I'm citing this for you if you shall know. Do not kill any old man, infant, child or woman… spread goodness and do good, for Allaah loves those who do good. Allaah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes.
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I hope you're wise enough to accept the truth and give up on your false assumptions after I have mentioned clear references. This would appear to be self-evident, but it seems that the moral bar is set fairly low in the Quran. Most likely, this is because they kept the verse in context. Verse 55 says it is the unbelievers, who are lower than animals: "Verily, The worst of moving living creatures before Allah are those who disbelieve".
The verses between tell Muslims that they cannot trust unbelievers and to punish them "severely" in war. If treachery is suspected at any point after non-Muslims are subjugated, Muslims are to break the covenant and attack the "enemies of Allah" and somewhat chillingly "others whom you may not know". As a whole, the passage declares that non-Muslims are, by nature, an inferior group on par with animals. They cannot be trusted and should be viewed with suspicion. Muslims can break any covenant merely on the basis of this suspicion and punish the unbelievers "severely," because that's what Allah wants Once more, Kashif, I don't know you personally, you could very well be a tolerant person who would never harm anyone except in self-defense, but when Muslim numbers grow large enough in an area, the demands for sharia law begin.
Sharia is incompatible and unacceptable in Western countries with free speech and womens' rights. I would take an example and I hope you won' mind it.
Connecting with the Divine
Let's consider Sikon Pardon me if that's not how you are known that someone kidnaps you and locks you up. Now this person, the kidnapper, uses you Name Sikon and your ID and implies that He is actaully the Sikon that he has locked up somewhere. Now this person using your name and Identity commits crimes, kills people and transgress in every possible manner.
Now you're ruined. You're labelled to be the transgressor. People think you are a bad person. While, in fact, you're there locked up in a room. You just wanna get out and tell everyone that the SIKON who has done all these tansgressions is not me.
Religion and Identity
But people won't believe you very easily. Unless they are receptive and open to acceptance. Same is true for Islam. Example of true Islam is like the locked up Sikon and False identity of Islam is being used to spread hatred and chaos. You might've never met or talked to a true practicing muslim. And that's why I don't blame you for it.